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Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by V S Bagad 13l: Theory and Practice



Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by V S Bagad 13l




Telecommunication switching systems and networks are essential for enabling the transmission and exchange of information across different devices, locations, and media. They are the backbone of modern communication systems, such as telephone, internet, mobile, satellite, optical, wireless, etc. In this article, we will explore what telecommunication switching systems and networks are, why they are important, what are the different types of them, and how they work. We will also review a comprehensive guide on this topic: Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by V S Bagad 13l.




Telecommunication Switching Systems And Networks By V S Bagad 13l



Introduction




What are telecommunication switching systems and networks?




A telecommunication switching system is a device or a set of devices that connects two or more communication channels or circuits, and allows them to be switched or routed according to certain criteria, such as destination address, availability, priority, etc. A telecommunication network is a collection of switching systems and transmission links that interconnect multiple communication endpoints, such as terminals, nodes, servers, etc.


Why are they important?




Telecommunication switching systems and networks are important because they enable efficient, reliable, secure, and flexible communication among various users and applications. They allow us to share information across different distances, formats, modes, and platforms. They also support various services and functions, such as voice, data, video, multimedia, internet access, email, online gaming, e-commerce, etc.


What are the main components and functions of telecommunication switching systems and networks?




The main components of telecommunication switching systems and networks are:



  • Switches: The devices that perform the actual switching or routing of communication channels or circuits.



  • Links: The physical or logical connections that carry the signals or data between switches or endpoints.



  • Endpoints: The devices that generate or receive the signals or data to be communicated.



  • Controllers: The devices that control the operation of switches and links.



  • Signaling: The process of exchanging information between switches or endpoints to establish, maintain, or terminate communication sessions.



The main functions of telecommunication switching systems and networks are:



  • Connection establishment: The process of setting up a communication channel or circuit between two or more endpoints.



  • Data transfer: The process of transmitting or receiving signals or data over the communication channel or circuit.



  • Connection release: The process of terminating the communication channel or circuit.



  • Resource allocation: The process of assigning or managing the available resources, such as bandwidth, buffer, power, etc., to optimize the performance and quality of service of the communication.



  • Error detection and correction: The process of identifying and correcting any errors or faults that may occur during the communication.



  • Security and privacy: The process of protecting the communication from unauthorized access, interception, modification, or disruption.



Types of telecommunication switching systems and networks




Circuit switching




Definition and characteristics




Circuit switching is a type of telecommunication switching system and network that establishes a dedicated and continuous communication channel or circuit between two or more endpoints for the duration of the communication session. The channel or circuit is reserved exclusively for the communicating endpoints, and no other endpoints can use it until it is released. The switches in a circuit switching system and network are responsible for creating, maintaining, and releasing the channel or circuit.


Advantages and disadvantages




The advantages of circuit switching are:



  • It provides a guaranteed and consistent quality of service, as the channel or circuit has a fixed bandwidth, delay, and error rate.



  • It is simple and reliable, as there is no need for complex routing or buffering mechanisms.



  • It is suitable for real-time and interactive applications, such as voice and video calls, that require low latency and high reliability.



The disadvantages of circuit switching are:



  • It is inefficient and wasteful, as the channel or circuit remains idle when there is no data to be transmitted or received.



  • It is inflexible and rigid, as the channel or circuit cannot be dynamically adjusted or shared according to the changing traffic demand or network conditions.



  • It is expensive and scarce, as the number of channels or circuits is limited by the physical capacity of the switches and links.



Examples and applications




The examples of circuit switching systems and networks are:



  • The public switched telephone network (PSTN), which is the traditional telephone system that uses analog or digital switches to connect voice calls.



  • The integrated services digital network (ISDN), which is a digital telephone system that uses digital switches to connect voice and data calls.



  • The synchronous optical network (SONET) or synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), which are optical transport systems that use optical switches to connect high-speed data streams.



Packet switching




Definition and characteristics